Two groups of monasteries have been excavated so far at the southern and southeastern part of the Mayadevi Temple in the Sacred Garden. Construction of these monasteries started in the 3rd century BC and continued until 9th century AD through the Mauryan, Kushana and Gupta periods. Overlapped and crowded, these structures are evidences of people’s eagerness to be laid near the sacred birth spot of Lord Sakyamuni Buddha.
This group of Monasteries was a residential block containing living rooms for monks, a meeting hall, two brick stupas (one square and the other circular), and a well in the courtyard of the Vihara. This group of monasteries was constructed during 2nd century BC to 2nd century AD through Sunga and Kusana periods.
This group of monasteries consists of twosub groups located at the southeast of the Mayadevi Temple, altogether containing 31 rooms. This group of monasteries was initially constructed during the Mauryan period (3rd century BC) and reconstructed during the Kusana (1st to 2nd century AD) and Gupta (4th century AD) periods. Monasteries belonging to sub-group 1 (east) consists of living rooms in four directions, a meditation block in the centre and a verandah at the western side whereas the sub-group 2 (west) consists of two water storage tanks and a small room (possibly a kitchen).