In addition to embarcing peace, contemplative values and spirituality,Lumbini also attracts naturalists, botanists and zoologists with its rich natural biodiversity. A visit to the surrounding villages and natural sites also gives visitor an opportunity to come across the most preferred birds of Lord Sakyamuni Buddha, the Sarus Crane, the most preferred plants (Asoka tree, sal tree, mango tree, pipal tree etc.) and crops such as rice, peas, golden gram, sesame etc.
Lumbini Crane Sanctuary (LCS) along with the associated farmlands have been identified as an International Bird Area (IBA) due to its rich biodiversity and unique ecosystems with hundreds of cranes and other birds. There are 27 species of mammals, 44 types of fishes and herds of blue bulls in the area. Important natural landscapes and bio-diversity in and around Lumbini include the serene natural environment within the Sacred Garden and Monastic Zones, Lumbini Crane Sanctuary located in the New Lumbini Village, several natural wetlands including Karbala lake (near Karmahawa village), Monkey tree and Punnihawa lake in Chainpurwa (Khudabagar), Tharunika lake in Mahilwari village, bat habitat and Hatihawa lake in Lakhimpur, Balrampur lake in Majahana village etc. Likewise important rivers for bird watching includes Telar, Dano and Kothi rivers. Gaidahawa lake (Bishnupura) is famous for vulture and blue bull whereas Gajedi is popular for the beautiful lakes with blooming lotus flower.
There are more than 250 bird species in the area including the world’s tallest flying bird sarus crane, endangered birds such as lesser adjutant, painted stork, slender-billed vulture, red-headed vulture, white-rumped vulture etc. Similarly threatened animals like python, blue bull (boselaphus tragocamelus), Bengal fox, wildcat, wild boars etc. are also found in and around Lumbini. The Telar and Dano floodplains are recognized as important habitats for birds.