The archaeological excavation carried out by General Khadga Shamsher Jung Bahadur Rana, the governor of Palpa and Dr. Alois Fuhrer, an eminent archaeological surveyor in British India, in 1896 AD, discovered the Asoka pillar re-establishing Lumbini as the birthplace of Lord Sakymuni Buddha. After rediscovery of the pillar and interpretation of inscriptions on it, the site drew huge attention of many archaeologists and historians from around the world. Another surveyor PC Mukherji conducted an excavation in 1899 AD and identified the Nativity Sculpture as well as some structural remains in and around Lord Sakyamuni Buddha’s birthplace. In 1930s, General Keshar Shumsher carried out large-scale excavation at the holy complex of Lumbini. He exposed ruins of some ancient stupas and monasteries, restored the Sacred Pond and reconstructed Mayadevi Temple.
Several excavations carried out by Lumbini Development Trust (LDT), Department of Archaeology (DoA) and Japan Buddhist Federation (JBF) between 1992-1995 in the Mayadevi complex have recovered the Marker Stone, important archaeological remains, shrines and ruins of ancient Mayadevi Temple. These archaeological findings have further reinforced Lumbini as the birthplace of Lord Sakyamuni Buddha as already testified by the inscription on the Asoka pillar.